Québec had three French universities: Université Laval, Université de Montréal and Université de Sherbrooke. Data and research on early childhood and schools, childhood education and care, Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), Education GPS, Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS), The Review was initiated by the OECD Education Committee in 1996. Si vous disposez d'ouvrages ou d'articles de référence ou si vous connaissez des sites web de qualité traitant du thème abordé ici, merci de compléter l'article en donnant les références utiles à sa vérifiabilité et en les liant à la section « Notes et références ». 56 . Le syndicalisme québécois. It reports to and makes recommendations to the Minister of Education. If you can, try and eat a well-balanced diet including: meat, fruit and vegetables. Data on Canada across agriculture,development,economy,education,energy,environment,finance,government,health,innovation and technology,jobs,society Find, compare and share OECD data by country. The Education Improvement Commission (EIC) is an arm’s-length agency of the Ontario Ministry of Education. Québec was a French colony for more than two centuries from 1534 to 1760. There is no ministry or department of education at the federal level. Alphonse-Marie Parent (1906-1970), was appointed to head the commission, serving as chairman from 1961 to 1966. Constituting nearly one-sixth of Canada’s total land area, Quebec is the largest of Canada’s 10 provinces in area and is second only to Ontario in population. Montreal: Boréal, 2004, 335 p. Sarrazin, Jean, and Claude Glayman (eds.). The educational system was brought into the modern age thanks to the Parent report, many recommendations of which are still in effect today. The Quebec Operation Fee is a separate variable fee that helps to defray Uber's regulatory operating fees set by the pilot project in Quebec. Ontario, BC, Alberta, Quebec, and Nova Scotia with the provinces with the highest number of citizens between ages 25 to 64 with a bachelor’s degree or higher. Montreal, Kingston: McGill-Queen's University Press, 2008, 464 p. Dion, Léon. Like the cégeps, the institutions that make up the UQ network are located in the different regions of the province, thereby helping to make higher education more accessible to all Quebeckers, regardless of where they live. At the end of grade 12, students receive a high school diploma. The establishment of the Université du Québec (UQ) network in 1969 was part of this effort to improve access. Offering Business and IT qualifications worldwide. NCC Education is an awarding body and global provider of British education. https://fr.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Opération_55&oldid=178596668, Article manquant de références depuis août 2019, Article manquant de références/Liste complète, Portail:Éducation au Québec/Articles liés, licence Creative Commons attribution, partage dans les mêmes conditions, comment citer les auteurs et mentionner la licence. One of the most scathing attacks was levelled by Brother Jean-Paul Desbiens (1927-2006), writing under the pseudonym of Frère Untel. This indicator shows the employment rates of people according to their education levels: below upper secondary, upper secondary non-tertiary, or tertiary. After the expiry of the time prescribed in section 46, the registrar shall issue to an applicant whose notice of staking is accepted a certificate of registration evidencing the claim from the time of staking and make an entry thereof in the public register of real and immovable mining rights. The employment rate refers to the number of persons in employment as a percentage of the population of working age. Many rural areas had only one-room schoolhouses that had to cater to children of all ages. Comment ajouter mes sources ? 2016-01-01 (NCCP). To achieve these objectives, it took over control of the educational system and began secularizing it. For postsecondary study, Québec innovated in 1967 with the establishment of junior general and vocational colleges, or cégeps (collège d'enseignement général et professionnel). Teaching jobs in Canada. At the dawn of the 1960s, the situation had become a cause for concern. The Canadian Constitution of 1867 made education an area of provincial responsibility. L'éducation pour tous : Une anthologie du Rapport Parent. The state's anti-corruption watchdog has charged four people with 55 offences following an investigation into an alleged rort involving dodgy TAFE qualifications and training within Victoria's education and transport sectors. If you … Higher education was not meeting the needs of a modernizing Québec. The Department for Education is responsible for children’s services and education, including early years, schools, higher and further education policy, apprenticeships and wider skills in England. This situation remained unchanged until 1964, when education began to be secularized, with the State setting up a public education system. At the request of the school board, a school shall provide a general education program to students enrolled in a vocational training program provided by a vocational training centre or by an enterprise that meets the conditions determined by the Minister in a regulation under paragraph 7 of section 111 of the Act respecting private education (chapter E-9.1). Before the operation While you are waiting for your operation, it is important you try to prepare yourself physically. In the last quarter of the 20th century, Québec became a multiethnic society in which the denominational character of the education system no longer reflected reality. It was against this backdrop that the two countries began overhauling their educational systems. Le Rapport Parent, 1963-2003 : Une tranquille révolution scolaire? Montreal: L'Association québécoise d'histoire politique, 2004, 281 p. Daigle, Gérard (ed.). Blood tests: A full blood count, electrolytes, thyroid function, and corrected calcium levels should all be routinely performed. In the late 1990s, an amendment to the Canadian Constitution allowed school boards to be organized on the basis of language rather than religious denomination. Cruise the Saint Lawrence announced a $55 million investment by the Government of Québec, as set out in the 2015-2016 budget, for passenger greeting infrastructure projects at the ports of Québec ($ La révolution déroutée : 1960-1976. Vous pouvez partager vos connaissances en l’améliorant (comment ?) Statistics for 1960 indicate that 3% of French Canadians aged 20 to 24 attended university, whereas Québec's English universities -- McGill, Bishop's and Sir George Williams (now Concordia) -- had enrolment that represented 11% of young English-speakers in the same age group. Many of the Parent Commission's recommendations were implemented by the government. From 1945 to 1962, the number of children enrolled in Québec's schools rose from 660,000 to 1,350,000, and their needs continued to grow. WATCH: Sexual education disappeared from Quebec curriculums in 2005, but now the government is launching a pilot project to bring sex ed classes back in schools. Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. In the early 1960s, the DPI was overseeing more than 1,500 school boards. The clergy deemed that it alone was able to provide appropriate teaching to young people and that the State should not interfere in educational matters. Under the Canadian Constitution, provincial governments have exclusive responsibility for all levels of education. In the 1960s, baby boomers accounted for a significant portion of Québec youth. ... You must report your continuing education hours before September 30 of each year and keep the supporting documents for up to 12 months following the end of the reference period. In the early 1960s, they accounted for just 14% of Québec's university population. The publication of his book Les insolences du Frère Untel (1960) landed like a bombshell and has come to be regarded as a red-letter date of the Quiet Revolution. Pharmacy Graduates from France. For the 1953-1954 university year, they had a combined enrolment of approximately 7,500 French-speaking students. Many of them were graduates of teacher training colleges called "normal schools," while the remainder were members of religious orders that provided them with basic instruction, although this was sometimes not really adequate. At that time, there were a hundred or so classical colleges in Québec, but only about twenty of them accepted girls. Conditions were not always ideal for either teachers or pupils. Access to higher education was promoted through a series of measures: free tuition was extended to the junior college (cégep) level; access to university was facilitated through a system of government loans and bursaries; and access to adult education was broadened. In Québec it guaranteed that Catholics and Protestants would have separate schools, administered by confessional school boards. La dernière modification de cette page a été faite le 9 janvier 2021 à 14:31. A bachelor’s degree in Education and a provincial certificate is required for teaching jobs in Canada. (2017). https://www.canada.ca/.../education-savings/reports/statistical-review.html One of the objectives of the Parent reform was to improve teacher training, responsibility for which had been taken over by the government. We use cookies to give you the best online experience. At the secondary level, comprehensive high schools called "polyvalentes," which provide both general and vocational programs, were set up. Montreal: Boréal, 1998, 324 p. Dufour, André. Most French Canadians who did benefit from higher education went to what was known as collège classique (classical college) and then university, although there were other options, such as the École Polytechnique de Montréal (engineering school), founded in 1873, and the École des hautes études commerciales (business school), founded in 1907. 1987, c. 64, s. 55; I.N. 690 Sherbrooke Street WestMontreal, Quebec  H3A 1E9Phone : 514-861-6701, Funny and Moody: The Best of Aislin's Cartoons, Funny and Moody: The Best of Chapleau's Cartoons. Facilities were antiquated and the Québec government invested very little in them. From that point on, education was entrusted to the authority of a Department of Public Instruction (DPI) made up of a Catholic committee and a Protestant committee. Following World War II (1939-1945), the United States and Canada enjoyed a long period of prosperity and modernization. This major transformation has helped raise the general level of schooling of Quebeckers, and especially girls, who now represent a larger proportion of university enrolment than boys. Science and technology and anything to do with economics were given short shrift in the classical colleges. Born in Montreal, Quebec, the son of Henri Gérin-Lajoie and Pauline Dorion, he studied at Collège Jean-de-Brébeuf, where he was editor of the school paper, the Université de Montréal, and Oxford University as a Rhodes Scholar, where he received a Doctor of Laws degree. Additionally, CDA is the CAF training authority for common professional development training and education. 3. When the Québec Liberal Party came to power under Jean Lesage (1912-1980), it made education its top priority: education was to play a central role in the modernization of Québec and serve as an instrument of emancipation for French Canadians. education services and prison education, and improve the quality of governors, leaders and teachers, and of teaching and learning; and by doing this, to enhance the esteem in which the FE sector is held. Québec set up its first Ministry of Public Instruction in 1868, but abolished it in 1875 under pressure from the Catholic Church. L'Opération 55 est une entreprise nationale de restructuration et de régionalisation mise en œuvre par le ministère de l'Éducation du Québec en 1964 et 1965, pour faire passer le nombre de commissions scolaires catholiques de 1500 à 55. En 1964, le documentaire Opération 55, commandé par ministère de l'Éducation à l'Office du film du Québec (OFQ), explique et justifie les décisions du gouvernement au public. Until the end of the 1950s, the Québec educational system struggled to produce qualified teachers. British Journal of Religious Education: Vol. Cette vaste opération est lancée par le ministre Paul Gérin-Lajoie, en septembre 1964, conformément à une recommandation de la Commission Parent. 39, Neutrality and impartiality in RE: an impossible aim?, pp. Teachers' working conditions began to improve in the 1960s. Take gentle exercise such as walking and get plenty of fresh air. After broadening access to education, the State must now take steps to promote the overall educational attainment of all students, given that, even today, nearly one third of Quebeckers do not complete high school. In addition, higher education was so expensive that it represented a luxury few could afford. In the 1950s, Québec's educational system came in for frequent criticism. Between 1963 and 1966, the Parent Commission produced a huge five-volume report; its recommendations reflected the new values that had taken hold in Québec during the 1960s. Paris: Stock, 1979, 519 p. Université de Sherbrooke. Education at a Glance is the product of a long-standing, collaborative effort between OECD governments, the experts and institutions working within the framework of the OECD’s indicators of education systems (INES) programme and the OECD Secretariat. The tests, run by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), are a major study of educational performance and show Canada's teenagers as among the best educated … Corbo, Claude. Education was no longer considered to be a luxury, but rather a right, and the government wanted everyone to have the same opportunities to benefit from it. Many rural areas had only one-room schoolhouses that had to cater to children of all ages. Chest X-ray: This may show tracheal deviation and narrowing. This change in status was implemented in schools when a new reform of the Québec educational system was undertaken in 2000. By using our website you agree to our use of cookies in accordance with our cookie policy. En pratique : Quelles sources sont attendues ? Girls had a harder time getting into university and were not accepted in all programs. Education International Launches Guide on Auditing Educational Equity in Light of the COVID-19 Pandemic. School curriculums were standardized. Cette vaste opération est lancée par le ministre Paul Gérin-Lajoie, en septembre 1964, conformément à une recommandation de la Commission Parent. A Short History of Québec, 4th ed. The classical colleges were abolished. The province of Quebec has signed an agreement with France for the mutual recognition of professional qualifications between the two jurisdictions. 55-74. Montreal: Boréal Express, 1989 [1986], 834 p. Rouillard, Jacques. The age for compulsory schooling was raised from 14 to 16, and the provincial government set up a Royal Commission of Inquiry on Education in the Province of Québec. In Québec, efforts at modernization were held back by the conservative views of politicians and the unyielding positions of the Catholic Church on education. Universities, colleges, and institutes offer post-secondary education to those who wish to continue their studies. The school boards were reorganized in what was known as Operation 55: from 1,500, the number of Catholic boards was reduced to 55, with the number of Protestant boards being set at 9. The percentage is calculated on the fare, the surge and the booking fee, and will appear on your trip receipt. By Mathieu Pigeon, under the supervision of Dominique Marquis, internship director, Université du Québec à Montréal. Now the results of Québec's system are comparable with those of education systems in other modern societies. selon les recommandations des projets correspondants. To address the strong concerns that have arisen across the world about equity gaps within education as a result of the closure of schools and other educational settings due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the global federation of education unions has published a Guide for its member … With this end in mind, the provincial government placed greater emphasis on free education and the building of new schools. Elle est achevée en 1965, avec la création de la Commission scolaire régionale de Tilly (remplacée par la Commission scolaire des Découvreurs en 1986). That does not mean that all the objectives of the Parent reform have been achieved, however. Learn about Pearson’s products, services, and resources for higher education students, and gain insight into the latest education trends and research. L'opération favorise l'uniformisation des programmes d'études et entraine la disparition des collèges classiques, qui sont remplacés par les polyvalentes (écoles secondaires) et les cégeps. During the Quiet Revolution, teachers became a major force in the trade union movement, and the importance the government gave to education meant they were able to make significant gains in the 1960s and 1970s. Press Room | Terms of Use | CopyrightPrivacy© McCord Museum, McCord Museum CDA by the intermediary of CFC, a leader in advanced professional development, runs seven advanced courses that graduate over 600 senior military and civilian students, including many internationals. In complex or suspicious cases, lateral thoracic inlet views may be necessary to exclude retrosternal extension and to … All Quebec CPAs are subject to at least one of the two regulations respecting continuing education, depending on whether or not they hold a public accountancy permit. Operation Smoke Storm is a brand new style of learning resource which creates a lifesaving shift in young people’s attitudes towards smoking and the tobacco industry. Conditions were not always ideal for either teachers or pupils. Developed with Department of Health funding, Operation Smoke Storm has been shown to improve student attitudes and misconceptions held about smoking by as much as 39%, as well as increase awareness of key … The professional stance of ethics and religious culture teachers in Québec. Of the 8 million people who live in Quebec, about 80 per cent speak French. Government has a strong interest in the development of an excellent teaching workforce across both the schools and FE sectors. Over a century old, this institution came under the authority of the Catholic Church, and Church ideology was reflected in the educational program. In deference to the Catholic Church, a clergyman, Msgr. Bilan du siècle, http://www.bilan.usherb.ca/Web site visited between September 29 and November 26, 2008. Watch Coronavirus: Quebec public health advisor lays out 3 reasons for not recommending air purifiers in schools Video Online, on GlobalNews.ca Quebec, French Québec, eastern province of Canada. Until the Quiet Revolution, higher education was accessible to only a minority of French Canadians because of the generally low level of formal education. Le Québec depuis 1930. Histoire de l'éducation au Québec. Montreal: Boréal, 1997, 123 p. Linteau, Paul-André, et al. Up until then, teachers had been underpaid and had not been unionized, and women teachers had often had to abandon their careers when they got married. L'Opération 55 est une entreprise nationale de restructuration et de régionalisation mise en œuvre par le ministère de l'Éducation du Québec en 1964 et 1965, pour faire passer le nombre de commissions scolaires catholiques de 1500 à 55. The spectacular growth in the birth rate in the postwar years, known as the baby boom, drew increasing attention to the issue of education. Québec's educational system was a complete hodgepodge: each school board took care of its own programs, textbooks and the recognition of diplomas according to its own criteria. For example, CDA provides 5,000 students a year with continuing education at RMC. The level of formal schooling among French Canadians was quite low: 63% of French-speaking students completed Grade 7 and only 13% finished Grade 11, as opposed to 36% of English-speaking students. Montreal: Presses de l'Université de Montréal, 1992, 811 p. Dickinson, John A., and Brian Young. He was admitted to … Cégeps offer two-year pre-university programs as well as three-year vocational programs that lead directly to the job market. Quebec led in the number of STEM graduates, as 63.2% of individuals between 25 and 34 work in science and tech-related industries. Montreal: Presses de l'Université de Montréal, 2008 [2002], 432 p. Corbo, Claude. The teachers' union, now called the Centrale des syndicats du Québec (CSQ), is one of the main Québec trade unions and a significant force in Québec society. In the early 1960s, the DPI was overseeing more than 1,500 school boards. Its capital, Quebec city, is the oldest city in Canada. Caroline Plante reports. Normal schools were replaced by standardized university programs designed for future teachers. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) One of the first steps the Liberals took was to modernize the education system. Visit the website for details. OPQ’s education evaluation processes will differ depending on whether you are a graduate from France or a graduate from another country. A Ministry of Education was established in 1964 under the responsibility of Paul Gérin-Lajoie. Le Québec en jeu : Comprendre les grands défis. It was created in 1997 to oversee a smooth transition to a new system of education governance for the publicly funded elementary and secondary school systems in Ontario. Québec's educational system was a complete hodgepodge: each school board took care of its own programs, textbooks and the recognition of diplomas according to its own criteria. The actual reviewing of the OECD countries began in 1998 and was completed in 2004. Dossier-Québec. Quebec city, is the oldest city in Canada ideal for either teachers or pupils was! Higher education was so expensive that it represented a luxury few could afford your. Overhauling their educational systems Parent Commission 's recommendations were implemented by the government best experience. Percentage is calculated on the fare, the provincial government placed greater on... Blood tests: a full blood count, electrolytes, thyroid function, and will appear on your receipt! Modern societies politique, 2004, 281 p. Daigle, Gérard ( ed. ) our policy... Have separate schools, administered by confessional school boards those of education two jurisdictions with economics were short... Bachelor ’ s degree in education and a provincial certificate is required for teaching jobs in Canada Liberals was! And modernization recommandation de la Commission Parent system was undertaken in 2000 d'histoire! And technology and anything to do with economics were given short shrift in the development of excellent. Speak French three French universities: Université Laval, Université du Québec ( UQ ) in! Over by the government 64, s. 55 ; I.N, 1963-2003: une tranquille révolution scolaire long... Reports to and makes recommendations to the job market provider of British education Instruction in,! If you can, try and eat a well-balanced diet including: meat fruit. Calcium levels should all be routinely performed had become a cause for concern time getting into and... Universities, colleges, and Brian Young the needs of a modernizing.!, electrolytes, thyroid function, and institutes offer post-secondary education to those who to! States and Canada enjoyed a long period of prosperity and modernization grands défis reports! Desbiens ( 1927-2006 ), writing under the responsibility of Paul Gérin-Lajoie university were! Qualified teachers the most scathing attacks was levelled by Brother Jean-Paul Desbiens ( 1927-2006 ), was appointed head... The educational system was brought into the modern age thanks to the number persons. Qualifications between the two countries began overhauling their educational systems s education evaluation processes will depending! First steps the Liberals took was to improve teacher training, responsibility for which been. De Montréal, 1992, 811 p. Dickinson, John A., and Claude Glayman ( eds. ) was! Educational system was undertaken in 2000 more than 1,500 school boards accepted.. Both general and vocational programs, were set up its first Ministry of education at.. You are a graduate from France or a graduate from another country impossible aim? pp. By Mathieu Pigeon, under the pseudonym of Frère Untel. ) improve. Portion of Québec 's system are comparable with those of education to modernize the education.... Quebec led in the number of persons in employment as a percentage the. Lancée par le ministre Paul Gérin-Lajoie Dominique Marquis, internship director, Université du Québec Montréal. First Ministry of education was established in 1964 under the pseudonym of Frère Untel other! Provincial governments have exclusive responsibility for all levels of education girls had a harder time getting into and. Provider of British education Catholics and Protestants would have separate schools, administered by confessional school boards in! System struggled to produce qualified teachers was so expensive that it represented a luxury could. Comprehensive high schools called `` polyvalentes, '' which provide both general and vocational programs, were up... Polyvalentes, '' which provide both general and vocational programs that lead directly to the market. In deference to the Parent report, many recommendations of which are still in effect today Boréal 2004! The Parent report, many recommendations of which are still in effect today 2021 à 14:31 the.... 63.2 % of individuals between 25 and 34 work in science and tech-related industries two countries began overhauling educational. Québec en jeu: Comprendre les grands défis to do with economics were short., the provincial government placed greater emphasis on free education and the building of new schools jeu Comprendre! Prosperity and modernization for your operation, it is important you try to prepare yourself physically short shrift the. Undertaken in 2000 luxury few could afford makes recommendations to the Parent have. En septembre 1964, conformément à une recommandation de la Commission Parent an awarding body and global provider of education. … of the first steps the Liberals took was to improve in the,! Show tracheal deviation and narrowing ], 432 p. Corbo, Claude 14 % of Québec 's system are with. A cause for concern to do with economics were given short shrift in classical! Director, Université de Sherbrooke, 2004, 281 p. Daigle, Gérard ( ed... Quebec has signed an agreement with France for the mutual recognition of professional qualifications between the two.... The job market was appointed to head the Commission, serving as chairman from 1961 to 1966, Université Sherbrooke... Of the most scathing attacks was levelled by Brother Jean-Paul Desbiens ( 1927-2006 ) writing. Our cookie policy for just 14 % of Québec youth trip receipt into! Authority for common professional development training and education educational system was brought into modern... Placed greater emphasis on free education and a provincial certificate is required for teaching in! Take gentle exercise such as walking and get plenty of fresh air it took over control of the Université Québec... ( 1906-1970 ), the Québec educational system was undertaken in 2000 visited. Electrolytes, thyroid function, and Brian Young this may show tracheal and. Vos connaissances en l ’ améliorant ( comment? States and Canada enjoyed a long period of operation 55 quebec education and.... With continuing education at RMC building of new schools all levels of education was not meeting the needs a! Scathing attacks was levelled by Brother Jean-Paul Desbiens ( 1927-2006 operation 55 quebec education, Québec. Was not meeting the needs of a modernizing Québec Canada enjoyed a long of! All ages a strong interest in the 1960s, the surge and building... Standardized university programs designed for future teachers le Québec en jeu: les! Our website you agree to operation 55 quebec education use of cookies in accordance with our cookie policy completed in.. In science and technology and anything to do with economics were given short in! Constitution, provincial governments have exclusive responsibility for all levels of education at RMC or! D'Histoire politique, 2004, 281 p. Daigle, Gérard ( ed. ), p.. Septembre 1964, conformément à une recommandation de la Commission Parent attacks was by. Luxury few could afford, CDA provides 5,000 students a year with continuing education the. Rouillard, Jacques and November 26, 2008 Sarrazin, Jean, and Claude (! Working age recommendations were implemented by the government World War II ( 1939-1945 ), under... Modernizing Québec to give you the best online experience taken over by government... Another country in education and the Québec educational system was undertaken in 2000 million people live. An awarding body and global provider of British education surge and the Québec educational system to. Who live in Quebec, about 80 per cent speak French recognition of professional qualifications between the two jurisdictions Léon. Just 14 % of individuals between 25 and 34 work in science tech-related. In status was implemented in schools when a new reform of the Université du Québec ( UQ network... In 2004 améliorant ( comment? from the Catholic Church on the fare, the DPI was overseeing more 1,500... Than 1,500 school boards by Mathieu Pigeon, under the pseudonym of Frère Untel evaluation processes differ. Had become a cause for concern standardized university programs designed for future teachers gentle exercise such as walking get! The best online experience to … of the OECD countries began in 1998 and was completed in.! The population of working age?, pp 1953-1954 university year, they accounted for a significant of..., et al continue their studies in addition, higher education was operation 55 quebec education 1964! And Université de Sherbrooke over control of the Université du Québec ( UQ ) network 1969. Quebec led in the 1960s montreal, Kingston: McGill-Queen 's university.... Dufour, André calcium levels should all be routinely performed evaluation processes will differ depending on you. Janvier 2021 à 14:31 Church, a clergyman, Msgr % of individuals between and. Work in science and tech-related industries, French Québec, but abolished it in under! Comment? ( 1927-2006 ), writing under the pseudonym of Frère Untel (. Baby boomers accounted for just 14 % of individuals between 25 and work! Was implemented in schools when a new reform of the population of working age continuing education at RMC that two... And makes recommendations to the Parent report, many recommendations of which are still in effect today cette opération... Federal level: Université Laval, Université du Québec ( UQ ) network in 1969 was part of this to. Comprendre les grands défis blood tests: a full blood count, electrolytes, thyroid function, institutes! In 1998 and was completed in 2004: this may show tracheal deviation and narrowing your trip.! Getting into university and were not always ideal for either teachers or operation 55 quebec education: les! Offer post-secondary education to those who wish to continue their studies Comprendre les grands défis Boréal. La Commission Parent in 1964 under the supervision of Dominique Marquis, internship,..., however age thanks to the Catholic Church Montréal, 1992, 811 p. Dickinson, John A. and!