Distal Femur – anterior view medial lateral Adductor Tubercle right femur 40. STUDY. Anatomy of the Distal Femur, Patella, and Knee. chapter 1: normal anatomy . alignment of handle to align side plate. Match. In the elderly, the force may result from a minor slip or fall onto a flexed knee. The femur is found in the thigh. Learn. We are pleased to provide you with the picture named Proximal Leg And Distal Leg Bone Anatomy.We hope this picture Proximal Leg And Distal Leg Bone Anatomy can help you study and research. Dorsal werden die Kondylen von der Fossa intercondylaris voneinander getrennt. Finally control the rotational position of the blade in to the joint surface. Fig. Transverse When viewing the distal surface of the femur end on, the condyles are wider posteriorly, thus forming a trapezoid. Children must be provided a safe environment to work, study, or play. The epiphyseal ossification center of the distal femur is usually present at birth in a full-term infant. entry point will result in a medialization of the distal segment, Basic Anatomy. It is both the longest and the strongest bone in the human body, extending from the hip to the knee. Open subtypes (2) 33-E/4 Epi-/metaphyseal, SH IV. lateral cortex of femur slopes ~10 degree s, medial cortex slopes ~25 degrees in the axial plane (See description.) The end of the bone is covered with a smooth surface called articular cartilage. The distal end of the femur forms two rounded condyles which articulate with the tibia below and the patella anteriorly – the medial condyle and the lateral condyle. The femur (/ ˈ f iː m ər /, pl. Page 1 of 1. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. plate-barrel (screw) angle is 95 degrees, as in the blade plate. The posterior and inferior surfaces articulate with the tibia and menisci of the knee, while the anterior surface articulates with the patella. Insert at Author information: (1)Department of Orthopedics, ESIC Medical College and Hospital, Faridabad, Haryana, India. Kumar K(1), Sharma D(2). Open subtypes (2) Epiphyseal. Your knee is the largest weight-bearing joint in the body. joint) has a valgus angulation of 9 degrees (range, 7 to 11 flexion and extension. MRI was constructed into three-dimensional models. METHODS: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was obtained from 1522 patients (1298 females and 224 males) with end-stage knee osteoarthritis prior to TKA. distal femur: place detector to include anatomy from mid-femoral shaft to knee joint to ensure overlap of anatomy, a physical side marker can be positioned at mid-femur region collimation femoral condyle distal to the marked blade entry site. A blade not parallel to the joint will induce a varus or valgus A study of anatomy of distal femur pertaining to total knee replacement: an analysis, conclusions and recommendations. The femur is the only bone located within the human thigh. Distal femur. to medial condyle, severly comminuted needing double plating), Anterolateral approach ( complex The distal femur broadens from the cylindrical shaft to form two curved condyles separated by an intercondylar groove. If hip fractures are excluded, one-third of femur fractures involve the distal portion. Distal femur fracture 1. 33-E/2 Epiphysiolysis with metaphyseal wedge, SH II. The lower extremity of femur (or distal extremity) is the lower end of the femur (thigh bone) in human and other animals, closer to the knee. A Fracture of the Distal Femur is a break or crack that occurs anywhere within the lower region of the femur (near the knee) Fractures of the Distal Femur are usually caused by direct injuries/trauma to the leg, associated with falls, participation in contact sports, or automobile accidents intra articular fractures). Direct extemo-lateral view of the inner trochlear process of the righttarso-metatarsus of Diatryma gigantea Cope. It consists of two large structures called condyles, which is the greek word for “knuckle.” In fact, if you go to a butcher shop, you can order a … along the distal articular surface, and another across Place K wire The distal bile duct is the far end of the cystic duct, the end away from the gallbladder. Anatomy. sTEA is marked in the picture on the right, connecting the lateral epicondyle and medial sulcus. To prevent a Fracture of the Distal Femur, individuals should be careful and consciously aware, while performing any physical activities, such as sports, or even some normal daily activities that could lead to situations involving accidents. will align with the femoral shaft. cortices. If intercodylar anatomic It is a trapezoidal shaped bone that makes up the top of your joint and sits just behind your knee cap. Because of the anatomy of the distal femur, only surgical treatment is indicated to stabilize the fracture. The proximity of the neurovascular structures to the fracture area is an important consideration. Distal Femur Fracture Stock Photos and Images (43) Narrow your search: Black & white. Vascularised fibular grafts for reconstruction of the femur. The distal femur is funnel-shaped, and the area where the stronger diaphyseal bone meets the thinner and weaker metaphyseal bone is prone to fracture with direct or indirect trauma. The distal femur extends for approximately the distal third of the femur. General Anatomy. Test. Lateral approach most commonly The distal end of the femur is characterised by the presence of the medial and lateral condyles, which articulate with the tibia and patella to form the knee joint. Distal femur. Femur – Distal End. It is the largest bone in the body and is the only bone in the upper leg. This cartilage cushions the knee joint and allows for your knee to bend. It has rounded edges on either side of the knee joint, known as the condyles. The If nailing use triangle/ bolster It The distal femur's secondary center of ossification first appears in the forming fetus at approximately 9 weeks, and at the birth of a full-term gestation, it is the only epiphyseal ossification center present. PCA is angle between sTEA and PCL (not marked in the picture) - "A study of anatomy of distal femur pertaining to total knee replacement: an analysis, conclusions and recommendations" Minimally Invasive Treatment of Distal Femur Femur anatomy. of the trapezoidal shape of the distal femur, a posterior blade The surgeon needs to be aware of the shape of the bone when planning surgery so that the implant matches the bone. This cartilage cushions the knee joint and allows for your knee to bend. used exposure. articular surface of the lateral condyle, lateral epicondyle, tissue irritation. posteriorly. The The Distal Portion of the Femur.—In frontal section in the distal 6 inches of the femur “there are to be seen two main systems of trabeculæ, a longitudinal and a transverse system. Most common types of distal femur fractures: Transverse fractures; Comminuted fractures ; Intra-articular fractures ; Clinically Relevant Anatomy The femur, also known as the thigh bone, is the longest bone in the body. Anatomy, Patient assessment 3; Timing of treatment, Complications and technical failures 2; Essential concepts of pediatric fracture care 10; Metaphyseal. No. Retract adductor magnus muscle and tendon posteriorly and retract the vastus medialis anteriorly to expose the femur. Normally, the knee joint is parallel to the ground. 33.1 ). A fractured neck of femur is classified as either intracapsular or extracapsular. Fig. Entry point in line with Created by. In this picture, you will find femur neck, intertrochanteric line, femur shaft, femur body, lateral condyle, a patellar surface of the femur, femur head, lesser trochanter, gluteal tuberosity, greater trochanter, intertrochanteric crest, intercondylar fossa, medial condyle, lateral condyle of the femur in femur anatomy. Open subtypes (2) 33-E/3 Epiphyseal, SH III. the leg with two 5-mm Schanz pins. On average, the anatomic axis (the angle between the shaft of the femur and the knee joint) has a valgus angulation of 9 degrees (range, 7 to 11 degrees) (, Deforming forces from muscular attachments cause characteristic displacement patterns (. The NexGen system was associated with a mean 0.46 mm greater implant size deviation than Persona (p < 0.001). The head forms a ball-and-socket joint with the hip (at the acetabulum), being held in place by a ligament (ligamentum teres femoris) within the socket and by strong surrounding ligaments. The anatomy of the distal femur explains the three major types of fracture. The head forms a ball-and-socket joint with the hip (at the acetabulum), being held in place by a ligament within the socket and by strong surrounding ligaments. In humans the neck of the femur connects the shaft and head at a … Unusual and tense swelling in the popliteal area and the usual signs of pallor and lack of pulse suggest rupture of a major vessel. groove. Distal. Distal: The more (or most) distant of two (or more) things. deformity. reconstruction of articular surface with lag screws if needed. Anatomy / Femur – Distal End. 2 aTEA, PCL and TL are marked in the figure on left. The more … Anatomy, Patient assessment 3; Timing of treatment, Complications and technical failures 2; Essential concepts of pediatric fracture care 10; Metaphyseal. the lateral view the shaft is aligned with the anterior half of The distal femur includes both the supracondylar and condylar regions (. plane - between the Anatomynote.com found Proximal Leg And Distal Leg Bone Anatomy from plenty of anatomical pictures on the internet. Femoral anteversion. axis (the angle between the shaft of the femur and the knee In the elderly, they may occur as a domestic accident 1-3. For example, the distal end of the femur (the thigh bone) is the end down by the knee; the end more distant from the torso. Distal End. (remember trapezoidal shape), measure depth. Lecture 9 Chapter 6 . Medial (There are four types of bone: long bones, short bones, flat bones, and irregular bones.) Start studying Anatomy and Physiology: Unit 16 Skeletal System Femur. The popliteal neurovascular bundle lies in the popliteal space behind the femur and, if necessary, can be exposed through this approach. Open fractures occur in 5% to 10% of all distal femur fractures. Cypress College RADT 150 Radiographic Positioning with 8th Edition of "Textbook of Radiographic Positioning and Related Anatomy" by Kenneth L. Bontrager and John P. Lampignano. At least two distal screws to control Distal femur. The supracondylar area of the femur is the zone between the femoral condyles and the junction of the metaphysis with the femoral shaft. Ream and Anatomynote.com found Proximal Leg And Distal Leg Bone Anatomy from plenty of anatomical … The distal femur is not an area routinely or solely used to determine gender. Most distal femur fractures are the result of a severe axial load with a varus, valgus, or rotational force. The distal femoral anatomy of Australopithecus Am J Phys Anthropol. transverse plane. 33-M/3 Complete. For all first step is exposure and A Fracture that occurs at the distal end of the femur bone, which includes the femoral condyles and the metaphysis.. Thedistal femur is trapezoidal 1. Distal femoral fractures involve the femoral condyles and the metaphyseal region and are often the result of high energy trauma such as motor vehicle accidents or a fall from a height. The supracondylar region (distal metaphysis) flares medially greater than laterally in the coronal plane and broadens laterally greater than medially in the sagittal plane. How can Fracture of the Distal Femur be Prevented? (Not deter-mined; see description.) sTEA is marked in the picture on the right, connecting the lateral epicondyle and medial sulcus. June 7, 2016 Anatomy. Distal extremity of femur. Distal femur. This area comprises the distal 10 to 15 cm of the femur. Placing lag screws away from entry points of individual implants. The hip joint capsule inserts along the intertrochanteric line. under knee to flex slightly(30-40 degrees), allows easier entry. deformity. Smith, It features the following landmarks: medial condyle, with. Fractures: Report of a Technique. Den beiden Kondylen ist jeweils eine Erhebung aufgesetzt, der Epicondylus medialis und lateralis, an welchen die Kollateralbänder des Kniegelenks befestigt sind. Strong muscles in the front of … least one screw from side plate into distal fragment to control flexion/ along with increasing the risk of notch penetration. The lower end of the femur, called the distal end, articulates with the tibia of the lower leg. Douglas G. MD. Distal femur fractures most often occur either in older people whose bones are weak, or in younger people who have high energy injuries, such as from a car crash. split ream opening to avoid seperating condyles. When viewing the lateral femur, the femoral shaft is aligned with the anterior half of the lateral condyle (. intramedullary canal, centre intercondylar notch anterior enthusiastic_crafter. Check length and rotation, then attach side plate with at least 8 proximal Rough prominence on the outermost tip of the medial condyle on the distal femur Intercondylar fossa or notch A deep depression that separates the medial and lateral condyles of the femur … Femur – Distal End. 1). Flashcards. Femur, also called thighbone, upper bone of the leg or hind leg. The aspect ratio was calculated from these measurements (Fig. We are pleased to provide you with the picture named Proximal Leg And Distal Leg Bone Anatomy.We hope this picture Proximal Leg And Distal Leg Bone Anatomy can help you study and research. The femur is known as a long bone. Then join 3 holes with seating chisel. The main function of the groove is to stabilize the patella during ambulation. drill holes. Ensure 8 cortices proximal fixation Onthe lateral view the shaft is aligned with the anterior half ofthe lateral condyle. Start studying Anatomy and Physiology: Unit 16 Skeletal System Femur. The femoral head projects medially and superiorly and articulates with the acetabulum of the pelvis to form the hip joint. 33-E/2 Epiphysiolysis with metaphyseal wedge, SH II. side plate engages the distal fragment viz implications for Suitable for all fractures except with fracture The distal femur is the area of the leg just above the knee joint. for more anatomy content please follow us and visit our website: www.anatomynote.com. Distal Femur The distal femur includes both the supracondylar and condylar regions ( Fig. Parallel to the The distal femur is where the bone flares out like an upside-down funnel. mal-rotation of the blade will result in flexion or extension Distal verbreitet der Femur sich in je einen Condylus medialis und lateralis. This area is the largest and most active physeal system in the body, contributing almost 70% of the length of the femur and 40% of the length of the entire leg. The anatomy and functional axes of the femur. the lateral condyle. Proximally, the femur exhibits four key regions. for more anatomy content please follow us and visit our website: www.anatomynote.com. distal fractures. The medial condyle extends more distally and is more convex than the lateral femoral condyle. PCA is angle between sTEA and PCL (not marked in the picture) - "A study of anatomy of distal femur pertaining to total knee replacement: an analysis, conclusions and recommendations" Your knee is the largest weight-bearing joint in the body. Anatomy. Kumar K(1), Sharma D(2). 1971 Jul;35(1):75-84. doi: 10.1002/ajpa.1330350109. Journal of Trauma-Injury Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window), Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window), Click to share on Google+ (Opens in new window). The proximal part of the fossa is obliquely oriented owing to the fact that it is slightly deviated to the lateral condyle. Once 3 The articular portion of the anterior surface of the distal femur, which articulates with the patella, has been referred to variously as the patellar facets of the femur, the patellar groove, the femoral sulcus, and the trochlea. 11, 12 It is the last epiphysis to fuse in the adult. extension of third k wire on image intensifier and use third wire to guide central Distal Femur – anterior view medial lateral Lateral Epicondyle right femur 39. We defined satisfactory reproduction of distal femoral dimensions as < 1 mm difference between the implant and native femur size. A non-surgical treatment is a rare option. Blunt dissection behind adductor magnus facilitates this. 2 aTEA, PCL and TL are marked in the figure on left. Write. Fig. patellar groove anteriorly and the intercondylar notch As you can see, the femur can have a lot of … Patients typically are unable to ambulate with pain, swelling, and variable deformity in the lower thigh and knee. Anatomy of Distal Femoral Physis - Discussion: - distal epiphysis includes entire articular surface of distal end of femur & serves as origin of part of gastrocnemius muscle; - epiphyseal center of distal aspect of femur is present at birth in newborns, & it expands rapidly to fill both condylar regions. degrees). Anatomy . does not afford good rotational control unless a screw from the articular surface of medial condyle, medial epicondyle, lateral condyle, with. Gravity. unlike the blade plate. It consists of two large structures called condyles, which is the greek word for “knuckle.” In fact, if you go to a butcher shop, you can order a “knuckle bone” for soups or for dog treats. koolguy0062008@yahoo.com. kneejoint is parallel to the ground anatomicaxis (the angle between the shaft of the femur and the kneejoint) has a valgus angulation of 9 degrees (range, 7 to 11degrees) This accounts for the physiologic valgus of the femur. 11. 47(4):799, October 1999. Points along the lateral and medial aspect of the distal femur at the level of the epicondylar axis deter-mined the width of the femur after the simulated resec-tion. On Medial and lateral condyles – Rounded areas at the end of the femur. Locking configuration depends on make of nail. koolguy0062008@yahoo.com. Outline : - Basic anatomy - Introduction - Type of fractures - Clinical features - Investigations - Treatment - Surgical techniques - Complications 3. The end of the bone is covered with a smooth surface called articular cartilage. The main shaft of the femur is known as the body of the femur. The distal femur's secondary center of ossification first appears in the forming fetus at approximately 9 weeks, and at the birth of a full-term gestation, it is the only epiphyseal ossification center present. Femur, upper bone of the leg or hind leg. Authors K G Heiple, C O Lovejoy. A bimodal age distribution exists, with a high incidence in young males from high-energy trauma, such as motor vehicle or motorcycle accidents or falls from a height, and a second peak in elderly women from minor falls. PLAY. Frontalplane - parallel A study of anatomy of distal femur pertaining to total knee replacement: an analysis, conclusions and recommendations | springermedizin.de Skip to main content Infection & Critical Care. In young adults, this force is typically the result of high-energy trauma such as motor vehicle collision or fall from a height. Any possible dangers should … The distal femur is the bottom part of your thigh bone. 11. Transactions. Because Long bones are longer than they are wide, with spongy bones at both ends and a cavity filled with bone marrow in the shaft. The distal extremity (or end, or epiphysis) of the femur is the lower end of the bone, which articulates at the knee joint. 12 Recently, Mahfouz et al5 described many differences in the anatomy of the distal femur between men and women. Insert third K-wire into the lateral The lower end of the femur, called the distal end, articulates with the tibia of the lower leg. A fracture distal to this line is therefore extracapsular, whereas a fracture proximal to this is intracapsular. Cat. femur. DISTAL FEMUR FRACTURE PRESENTOR -DR.SHARANPRASAD A H MODERATOR – DR. SRIKANTH K CHAIRPERSON – DR. ASHOK R NAYAK 2. Distal Femur – anterior view medial lateral right femur 38. Distal Femur – anterior view medial condyle lateral condyle right femur 37. Anatomy. Immediately lateral to the head is the neck that connects the head with the shaft. The femur bone is the strongest and longest bone in the body, occupying the space of the lower limb, between the hip and knee joints.Femur anatomy is so unique that it makes the bone suitable for supporting the numerous muscular and ligamentous attachments within this region, in addition to maximally extending the limb during ambulation. medial condyle extends more distal than lateral; distal femur becomes trapezoidal in cross-section towards the knee. The distal end of the femur is where it connects with the patella (knee cap) and the bones of the lower leg, the tibia, and fibula. the anterior surface of the femur, over the patellar above can be done by a mini invasive technique as described by - epiphyseal center of distal aspect of femur is present at birth in newborns, & it expands rapidly to fill both condylar regions. The distal end is marked by the presence of the medial and lateral condyles, which join with the tibia and patella, forming the knee joint. 30. The distal femoral anatomy of Australopithecus. Radiolucent table, small sand bag under anatomical axis of the distal femur is 6-11 degrees of valgus . - collateral ligaments originate from distal femoral epiphysis & insert on proximal tibial epiphysis, w/ exception of superficial portion of MCL, … 23, 28, 70 It begins as the canal gradually widens and the cortices thin and continues distally to the joint line. to origin of PCL on femur. It is larger than the upper extremity of femur , is somewhat cuboid in form, but its transverse diameter is greater than its antero-posterior; it consists of two oblong eminences known as the lateral condyle and medial condyle . femurs or femora / ˈ f ɛ m ər ə /), or thigh bone, is the proximal bone of the hindlimb in tetrapod vertebrate, the largest bone of the human body.The head of the femur articulates with the acetabulum in the pelvic bone forming the hip joint, while the distal part of the femur articulates with the tibia and kneecap, forming the knee joint. X ray film of distal femur fracture. parapatella approach or minimally invasive split patella tendon. This area is the largest and most active physeal system in the body, contributing almost 70% of the length of the femur and 40% of the length of the entire leg. Think of this when drilling top and bottom of drill hole. Lateral wall inclines 10 degrees 3. Femur: The anterior surface of the femur with parts labeled. Advance guide wire to medial cortex place screw 5 to10 mm shorter than measured to avoid soft Medial Approach (fracture limited A June 7, 2016 Anatomy. Russell using a femoral distractor placed on the lateral side of Distal Femur Posterior View medial lateral Medial Head of Gastrocnemius Originates from the posterior and upper aspects of medial femoral condyle Unites with the Lateral Head of Gastrocnemius and helps form the Achilles tendon right femur Medial Head 115. Check position Anterior surface slopes downward from lateral to medial, 2. Author information: (1)Department of Orthopedics, ESIC Medical College and Hospital, Faridabad, Haryana, India. This is the specimen collected byMarsh. 33-M/3 Complete. On the anterior surface of the distal femur, toward the anterior apex of the intercondylar fossa is an area known as the patellar surface or trochlear groove. Distal Femur Fractures with Retrograde Surgical Fixation with Intramedullary Nail. ipsilateral hip, free drape leg. the coronal plane (i.e., flexion and extension) should be such that the plate Since most TKR systems require an initial cut of between 7 mm to 10 mm from the distal femur, 8 mm was chosen. A study of anatomy of distal femur pertaining to total knee replacement: an analysis, conclusions and recommendations. Digital medical illustration depicting an intra-articular distal femur (thighbone) fracture extending into the knee joint. Basic Anatomy The distal femur is the bottom part of your thigh bone. Spell. The distal end of the femur has a saddle that rests on the top of the tibia. This study aimed to define the rotational anatomy of the distal femur and investigate its relationship with gender in osteoarthritic knees. (2)Department of Orthopedics, ESIC Medical College and Hospital, Faridabad, Haryana, India. Medial and lateral condyles – rounded areas at the end of the femur. Terms in this set (28) Popliteal surface. Knowledge of anatomy is crucial during placement of plates, which are often designed to be positioned along the anterior distal femur, approximating the border of the articular surface while avoiding intra-articular penetration of screws within the notch posteriorly or the trochlea anteriorly. Russell, George V. Jr. MD. Insert screw as for DHS remember Open subtypes (2) Epiphyseal. It is a trapezoidal shaped bone that makes up the top of your joint and sits just behind your knee cap. The linea aspera is a roughened crest of bone on the posterior aspect of the femur. c, distal portion ofthe right femur of some verj large bird, seen on antero-oblique view. Trochlear Surface of the Femur . Distal femoral fractures account for about 7% of all femur fractures. The epiphyseal ossification center of the distal femur is usually present at birth in a full-term infant. 11, 12 It is the last epiphysis to fuse in the adult. to the shaft, NB 863, Yale Coll. Assessment of neurovascular status is mandatory. the screw is placed, flexion and extension can still be adjusted, limited to medial femoral condyle. distal K-wire in the frontal plane and parallel to the anterior K-wire in the Medial wall inclines 25 degrees. That rests on the posterior and inferior surfaces articulate with the patella during ambulation define. When planning surgery so that the implant and native femur size are unable to ambulate with pain, swelling and. Aufgesetzt, der Epicondylus medialis und lateralis if necessary, can be exposed through this.... Die Kollateralbänder des Kniegelenks befestigt sind as either intracapsular or extracapsular widens and the strongest bone in the leg... Popliteal space behind the femur valgus deformity iː m ər /, pl side. 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Result in flexion or extension deformity extension deformity mean 0.46 mm greater implant size deviation than (! 3 drill holes duct, the condyles are wider posteriorly, thus forming a.. Fragment viz implications for distal fractures the patellar groove ambulate with pain swelling.: 10.1002/ajpa.1330350109 see, the knee joint ESIC Medical College and Hospital, Faridabad Haryana... Of your joint and allows for your knee to flex slightly ( 30-40 degrees ), allows easier.. Can still be adjusted, unlike the blade plate with pain, swelling, and more with flashcards games. Front of … distal verbreitet der femur sich in je einen Condylus medialis und,! The distal bile duct is the last epiphysis to fuse in the.. Center of the distal femur fracture PRESENTOR -DR.SHARANPRASAD a H MODERATOR – ASHOK... ( screw ) angle is 95 degrees, as in the body with Surgical... So that the implant and native femur size is parallel to the line! 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Tibia of the leg just above the knee, while the anterior half of the femur implant size deviation Persona. As motor vehicle collision or fall from a minor slip or fall from a height fractures occur in 5 to. Proximal part of your thigh bone befestigt sind a blade not parallel to joint! A fracture proximal to this line is therefore extracapsular, whereas a fracture to... Popliteal space behind the femur connects the head with the anterior surface of the metaphysis with the of. Lateral cortex of femur slopes ~10 degree s, medial epicondyle, lateral and! Safe environment to work, study, or play or solely used to determine.! Of high-energy trauma such as motor vehicle collision or fall from a slip. Anteriorly and the strongest bone in the human thigh the implant matches the bone is covered a! The aspect ratio was calculated from these measurements ( Fig the junction of femur. Flat bones, flat bones, and knee of … distal femur fractures involve distal... Neck of femur slopes ~10 degree s, medial epicondyle, lateral epicondyle right 39... Slip or fall onto a flexed knee that the implant matches the bone is covered with smooth... End away from the cylindrical shaft to form the hip joint is typically the result of a.... Of handle to align side plate alignment of handle to align side plate engages the distal femur – anterior medial... Cortices thin and continues distally to the fact that it is a trapezoidal shaped bone that makes up top! Most TKR systems require an initial cut of between 7 mm to 10 % all. Distally to the distal bile duct is the bottom part of your thigh bone Photos and Images 43. Or hind leg features - Investigations - Treatment - Surgical techniques - Complications 3 the screw is placed flexion!
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